Sixteenth Century Moroccan Diplomacy: Balance of Power in Conflictual Geo-Political Space

Kingdom of Morocco and United Kingdom in Time of Change

Said El Mansour Cherkaoui Said Cherkaoui Said El Mansour Cherkaoui

Great Land of Great Britain, United Kingdom had one of the oldest diplomatic relationships, the Land of the Moors.   

The aftermath of the discovery of the New World was a precipice and deep ravine within the Inter-European relationship and facilitated a rise of new forms of crusades against the Southern Islamic regions and countries

Here is a glimpse of my own adventure in such Northern lands followed by my writings on the precedent first Moroccan holders of Diplomatic Correspondences between Kingdom of Morocco and King-Queendom of Great Britain and European powers.

I crossed Spain from Algeciras and went up the west coast of France to Paris and joined Boulogne-sur-Mer all by Hitchhiking, taking the Ferry-Boat to Dover . 

Next, hitchhiking to London, Piccadilly Circus where I had made an appointment with my Cousin, whom I had taken with me for a European adventure.

Meeting Cousin in London was August 1970.

First a Respect visit to the Football Temple Wembley

Second Cousin another Moor like us – Bobby Moore 

All the stands of Wembley stadium are in wood where British Team won the World Cup in 1966

Celebration with a Tea Cup with Cream and Sandwich at Victoria Station

Fish and Chips at Soho

Milk and Chocolate bars in front houses

Breakfast red beans, sausage, eggs, cereal and toast in Youth Hostel

Bed and Breakfast around the Southern Coast of Brighton to Southampton

Where beaches are made of stones

Pop Festival the last for Jimmy Hendrix:

Isle of Wight Festival 26 to 31 August 1970 at Afton Down

Love in Piccadilly Circus

People Park, Screaming, Free Speech, Troubadours at Hyde Park

People Smoking, drinking and sun bath at James Park

Marching bands, Feathers of Ostrich, Hat taken from Napoleon Army at Waterloo 

Parade of Clean Shaved Immobile Guards Buckingham Palace

Where is the Beef

Beefeaters in family shape and look alike, same dress, same hat, same hot color Red

Red Guards of Red Square Cells and Prison alike

Walking in trance through the history of England with their golden outfit and their spears

Flying hands and legs synchronizing music with their their moves forward and head backward

Driven by their loyalty to the Crown since the beginning of British Kingdom guarding Tower of London

Aristocratic Time and Prison with no Time, Bridge and Donjon of London with Westminster Abbey Tower

The rest from the British Museum to Tavistock Square

Knowledge Spoliated and Kidnapped from the time of Victoria

When Here Comes the Sun, My Lord, My Sweet, Really Wants to See You

The Sun did not Sleep before Robbing other countries of their most valuable good: their own Memory

Pioneer Diplomats, Builders of Linkages of New Destiny for International Affairs

This is the time when Ambassadors were considered as the ways and the means to plant the roots of new diplomatic recognition and the gardeners of acceptance between cultures and countries of different thoughts and faiths. They were the builders of bridges of communication and path of mutual understanding when they succeeded in their labor and approaches.

Moroccan Pioneer Diplomats: The Masters of Dignity in Hostile Environment

Centuries of Diplomatic Relations between Morocco and Europe did not save Morocco from becoming the target and the prey of the European Predators and Imperialists that have always considered Morocco as the Shield of Africa to be put down and to be used as the Main Entrance and Invasion of Africa starting with the domination of North Africa. Such approach had let to the starting of containment policy pursued gradually through the use of the pretext of piracy and filibusterism, while it was another reaction by Moroccans that have not accepted the weakness of the dynasties could lead to the penetration and the direct control of Morocco by the rising Europeans powers that were divided among themselves. The only unifying common denominator in their combined or coordinated wars carried on the Southern Shores of the Mediterranean was given the Vatican who saw an opportunity to reduce the impact of the Protestantism on the West and the rise of Islam in the East through the consolidation of the Ottoman Empire. Morocco stayed out of this fray given that it was the only country who had not been ruled directly by any foreign power, including the Ottoman.

by Said El Mansour Cherkaoui
Sciences Po, Grenoble
Université Grenoble Alpes – IREP
Institut des Hautes Etudes de l’Amérique Latine, Paris
Université de la Sorbonne, Paris III

Europe – FranceContactSearch

Compilation Said El Mansour Cherkaoui 

 October 24, 2021 – March 28, 2022

Emissaries of Moroccan Kings to Europe

International Day of Diplomats 24 Octobre

Anglo – Moroccan Alliance – 1588 – Present

The Anglo-Moroccan alliance [1][2] was established at the end of the 16th century and the early 17th century between the kingdoms of England and Morocco. Commercial agreements had been reached by Queen Elizabeth I of England and the Moroccan Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur on the basis of a common enmity to Philip II of Spain. The arms trade dominated the exchange, and numerous attempts at direct military collaboration were also made.[1]

The alliance was maintained for some time by their successors.


After 1578, Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur developed relations between England and Morocco into a political alliance.

The alliance between the two states developed during the 16th century on the back of regular commercial exchanges, largely thanks to the work of the Amphlett family of merchants.[3]  European trade with Morocco had been at the command of Spain, Portugal and Genoa,[4] but in 1541 the Portuguese suffered the loss of Safi and Agadir, loosening their grip on the area.

Following the sailing of The Lion of Thomas Wyndham in 1551,[5] and the 1585 establishment of the English Barbary Company, trade developed between England and the Barbary states, and especially Morocco.[6] [7]

Sugar, ostrich feathers and saltpeter from Morocco were typically exchanged for English fabrics and firearms, in spite of the protests of Spain and Portugal.[3]

Elizabeth I had numerous exchanges with Sultan Abd al-Malik to facilitate trade and obtain advantages for English traders.[3] The sultan could speak Spanish and Italian as well as Arabic. In 1577 he wrote to the queen in Spanish, signing himself AbdelMeleck in Latin script.[8] That same year, the queen sent Edmund Hogan as ambassador to the Moroccan court.[9]

Sugar Land Saadienne: Histoire Sucrée du Maroc

Industrie Sucrière Industrialisante ou Secteur Pourvoyeur de Pouvoir d’Achat Extérieur et de Renforcement des Assises de l’Etat Saadien? Au XVIe siècle, des moulins à sucre et des plantations se trouvaient aussi dans la province maritime du Haha sur l’Oued Qsob. L’Espagnol Luys del Marmol et Jean-Léon l’Africain citent en outre les plantations de la canne … Lire la suite Sugar Land Saadienne: Histoire Sucrée du Maroc

« Wa Zid Soukar a Caïd Wa Ra Ma Tab Oh Soukar Ma Tssab »

Culture Populaire de l’Histoire du Thé Sucré a Doukkala, Maroc

« Wa Zid Soukar a Caïd Wa Ra Ma Tab Oh Soukar Ma Tssab »

La Traduction Transparente et Modernisée de la Tradition Doukkalienne: … Lire la suite « Wa Zid Soukar a Caïd Wa Ra Ma Tab Oh Soukar Ma Tssab »


Elizabeth was initially reluctant to develop an arms trade with Morocco, for fear of criticism by other Christian powers, as was communicated by Hogan to the Sultan in 1577.[9] Contacts however soon developed into a political alliance as a result of further diplomatic exchanges between Elizabeth I and Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, after the defeat of Portugal at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578.[3]

Queen Elizabeth I of England

The reason for the Muslim presence in England stemmed from Queen Elizabeth’s isolation from Catholic Europe. Her official excommunication by Pope Pius V in 1570 allowed her to act outside the papal edicts forbidding Christian trade with Muslims and create commercial and political alliances with various Islamic states, including the Moroccan Sa’adian dynasty, the Ottoman Empire and the Shi’a Persian Empire.

She sent her diplomats and merchants into the Muslim world to exploit this theological loophole, and in return Muslims began arriving in London, variously described as “Moors”, “Indians”, “Negroes” and “Turks”.

No Christian even knew the words “Islam” or “Muslim”, which only entered the English language in the 17th Century. Instead they spoke of “Saracens”, a name considered in medieval times to have been taken from one of Abraham’s offspring (with the servant Hagar) who was believed to have founded the original twelve Arab tribes.

Christians simply could not accept that Islam was a coherent religious belief. Instead they dismissed it as a pagan polytheism or a heretical deformation of Christianity. Much Muslim theology discouraged travel into Christian lands, or the “House of War”, which was regarded as a perpetual adversary of the “House of Islam”.

But with Elizabeth’s accession this situation began to change. In 1562 Elizabeth’s merchants reached the Persian Shah Tahmasp’s court where they learned about the theological distinctions between Sunni and Shi’a beliefs, and returned to London to present the queen with a young Muslim Tatar slave girl they named Aura Soltana.

She became the queen’s “dear and well beloved” servant who wore dresses made of Granada silk and introduced Elizabeth to the fashion of wearing Spanish leather shoes.

Ahmad al-Mansur was an important figure in both Europe and Africa in the sixteenth century, his powerful army and strategic location made him an important power player in the late renaissance period. He was also the Muslim hero of one of most memorable battles in the centuries-long struggle between Christians and Muslims.

After 1578, Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur developed relations between England and Morocco into a political alliance – Image via Wikipedia

Ahmad al-Mansur

The famous Battle was a hard fought affair won finally by the Moroccans due in large part to the military exploits of Ahmad al-Mansur. Three Kings were killed; Portugal’s Dom Sebastian, Morocco’s current ruler Abd al-Malik (al-Mansur’s brother) and deposed former ruler al-Mutawakkil (al-Mansur’s nephew who fought alongside Dom Sebastian). Ahmad al-Mansur was suddenly a national hero, the living representation of Morocco’s strength and pride. The door for his reign opened and he charged through. He began by leveraging his dominant position with the vanquished Portuguese during prisoner ransom talks, the collection of which filled the Moroccan royal coffers. Shortly after, he began construction on the great architectural symbol of this new birth of Moroccan power and relevance; the grand palace in Marrakesh called al-Badi, or “the marvelous.”

Eventually the coffers began to run dry due to the great expense of supporting the military, extensive spy services, the palace and other urban building projects, a royal lifestyle and a propaganda campaign aimed at building support for his controversial claim to the Caliphate. In reality, Morocco’s standing with the Christian states was still in flux. The Spaniards and the Portuguese were still popularly seen as the infidel, but al-Mansur knew that the only way his regime would survive was to continue to benefit from alliances with the Christian economic powers. To do that Morocco had to control sizable gold resources of its own. Accordingly, al-Mansur was drawn irresistibly to the trans-Saharan gold trade of the Songhay in hopes of solving Morocco’s economic deficit with Europe.

The Songhay Campaign

The Songhay, was a pre-colonial African state centered in eastern Mali. From the early 15th to the late 16th century, it was one of the largest African empires in history. Its base of power was on the bend of the Niger River in present-day Niger and Burkina Faso. At its greatest extent (c. 1498), the Songhay sphere of power reached far down the Niger river into modern day Nigeria, all the way to the Northeast of modern day Mali, and even to a small part of the Atlantic coast in the West. Songhay trans-Saharan trade consisted primarily of gold, salt, and slaves.

It is pretty clear that al-Mansur’s designs in the Songhay campaign were economic, but he had other considerations as well. At home he sought support from powerful religious leaders by accusing the Songhay of being lax in their practice of Islam and thus a target for proper moral purification. He also sold the action domestically as being a vital step in establishing an African Caliphate.

Geo-politically al-Mansur claimed his interests within the region were strictly part of a defensive jihad to halt further Ottoman expansion. The Sa’di ruler could point to the increasingly provocative Ottomans operating next door in Algeria to make his case for taking Songhay in order to create a buffer zone on Morocco’s southern flank.

By the time of his death al-Mansur, who was a contemporary of Galileo and Shakespeare*, had lost not only most of the Songhay but his reputation and legacy was also reduced. In fact, the memory of the great General who was victorious at Alcazar and who built the greatest palace in Morocco has faded largely from view.

* Ironically al-Mansur is believed to have been the model for Shakespeare’s prince of Morocco character in The Merchant of Venice–the work that gave us the famous line: “All that glitters is not gold.”

Source: Essay: Ahmad al-Mansur (1549-1603) Renaissance Diplomacy Moroccan Style

First Moroccan Envoy to the Elizabethian England: Ahmed Bilqassim

More details remain of Moroccan embassies from later that decade. In 1589 the Moroccan ambassador Ahmed Bilqasim entered London in state, surrounded by Barbary Company merchants, proposing an Anglo-Moroccan military initiative against “the common enemy the King of Spain”.

Although the anti-Spanish proposal came to nothing, the Moroccan ambassador sailed in an English fleet later that year that attacked Lisbon with the support of the Moroccan ruler, Mulay Ahmed al-Mansur.

Just over 10 years later another Moroccan ambassador called Muhammad al-Annuri arrived in London, with a large retinue of merchants, translators, holy men and servants who stayed for six months living in a house on the Strand where Londoners watched them practising their religious faith.

Anglo–Spanish War

Elizabeth I tried to obtain Sultan al-Mansur’s help in backing Dom António‘s claim to the Portuguese throne against Philip of Spain.

Antonio_of_Portugal Elizabeth I tried to obtain Sultan al-Mansur’s help in backing Dom António’s claim to the Portuguese throne against Philip of Spain

After 1578, Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur developed relations between England and Morocco into a political alliance. Relations intensified with the acclamation of Philip II of Spain as King of Portugal in 1580, and the advent of the Anglo–Spanish War in 1585.[9] In 1581, Elizabeth authorized the exportation of naval-grade timber to Morocco in exchange for saltpeter,[9] a necessary ingredient in gunpowder. The establishment of the Barbary Company in 1585 further gave England a monopoly on Morocco trade for 12 years.[3] In 1585–1588, through the embassy of Henry Roberts, Elizabeth tried to obtain the Sultan’s help in backing Dom António.[9] In 1588, Al-Mansur granted special privileges to English traders.[3]

In her letters to Al-Mansur, Elizabeth, over a period of 25 years, continually described the relationship between the two countries as « La buena amistad y confederación que hay entre nuestras coronas » (« The great friendship and cooperation that exists between our Crowns »), and presented herself as « Vuestra hermana y pariente según ley de corona y ceptro » (« Your sister and relative according to the law of the Crown and the Scepter »).[10]

In January 1589, Al-Mansur through his ambassador to the Queen,[11] Marzuq Rais (Mushac Reyz),[12] requested the supply of oars, carpenters and shipwrights, as well as transportation on English ships, in exchange for his contribution of 150,000 ducats and his military help for an Anglo-Moroccan expedition against Spain in favour of the Portuguese claimant.[9] He also requested English military assistance in case of a conflict with neighboring non-Christian countries. Elizabeth could not meet these demands completely, especially the transportation of Moroccan forces, and negotiation drew on until the death of Dom António in 1595. [9] [13]

The 1589 English expedition to Portugal moved ahead nonetheless, and ended in failure with the English fleet hoping in vain for reinforcements from England or Morocco.[14]  Only the Moroccan ambassador Marzuq Rais was accompanying the expedition, on board the flagship of Dom António, disguised as a Portuguese nobleman, and stayed until summer 1589. [12]

1600 Embassy

Diplomatic relations continued to intensify between Elizabeth and the Barbary states.[15] England entered in a trading relationship with Morocco detrimental to Spain, selling armor, ammunition, timber, metal in exchange for Moroccan sugar, in spite of a Papal ban,[16] prompting the Papal Nuncio in Spain to say of Elizabeth: « there is no evil that is not devised by that woman, who, it is perfectly plain, succoured Mulocco (Abd-el-Malek) with arms, and especially with artillery ».[17]

In 1600, Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, the principal secretary to the Moroccan ruler Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur, visited England as an ambassador to the court of Queen Elizabeth I.[18] [19] 

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun Moorish Ambassador_to_Elizabeth_I

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud spent 6 months at the court of Elizabeth, in order to negotiate an alliance against Spain.[20] [21] The Moroccan ruler wanted the help of an English fleet to invade Spain, Elizabeth refused, but welcomed the embassy as a sign of insurance, and instead accepted to establish commercial agreements.[15] [20] 

Queen Elizabeth and king Ahmad continued to discuss various plans for combined military operations, with Elizabeth requesting a payment of 100,000 pounds in advance to king Ahmad for the supply of a fleet, and Ahmad asking for a tall ship to be sent to get the money. Elizabeth « agreed to sell munitions supplies to Morocco, and she and Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur talked on and off about mounting a joint operation against the Spanish ».[22]  Discussions however remained inconclusive, and both rulers died within two years of the embassy. [23]

Moorish Ambassador to Elizabeth I, Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, born 1558 Known as Morocco ambassador to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I in 1600.

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun (Arabic: عبد الواحد بن مسعود بن محمد عنون‎ « Servant of The One, Son of Messaoud, Son of Mohammed Anoun ») was principal secretary to the Moroccan ruler Mulay Ahmad al-Mansur, and ambassador to the court of Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1600,[1] whose primary task was to promote the establishment of an Anglo-Moroccan alliance.

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud

The visit of Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud followed the sailing of The Lion in 1551, and the 1585 establishment of the English Barbary Company, which had the objective of developing trade between England and Morocco.[2][3] Diplomatic relations and an alliance were established between Elizabeth and the Barbary states.[3]

The last years of the 16th century saw major English successes against Spain, with the English victory against the Spanish Armada in 1588, and the Capture of Cadiz by the Earl of Essex in 1597. As a result, King Ahmad al-Mansur decided to send an embassy to propose a joint invasion of Spain.[3] [4] Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud was accompanied by al Haji Messa and al Haji Bahanet, as well as an interpreter named Abd el-Dodar, an Andalusian by birth, under cover of a trade mission to Aleppo with a stopover in London.[5] Altogether, the embassy numbered 16 (including some prisoners being returned to England), and sailed on board The Eagle under Robert Kitchen.[6] Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud reached Dover on 8 August 1600.[6]

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud spent 6 months at the court of Queen Elizabeth I during 1600 with the aim of negotiating an alliance against Spain. [2] [7]  Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud spoke some Spanish, but he communicated to the Queen through his interpreter who spoke in Italian.[5] They met with the Queen on 19 August[6] and again on 10 September.[6]

This imposing oil painting shows the Moroccan Ambassador who visited London in late 1600. Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun (seen here aged 42) was part of a delegation of 17 men sent by the King of Barbary, a huge expanse of North Africa which includes modern-day Morocco. The group came to negotiate with Queen Elizabeth I about the possibility of a military alliance, combining English and African forces to conquer Spain.

One reported that they “killed all their own meat within their house, as sheep, lambs, poultry” and “turned their faces eastward when they kill any thing; they use beads, and pray to Saints”.

Al-Annuri had his portrait painted, met Elizabeth and her advisers twice and even proposed a joint Protestant-Islamic invasion of Spain and naval attack on her American colonies. The plan only seems to have foundered because Elizabeth feared upsetting the Ottomans, who were at the time al-Mansur’s adversaries.

The alliance came to an abrupt end with Elizabeth’s death and her successor James I’s decision to make peace with Catholic Spain, but the presence of Muslims like al-Annuri, Ahmed Bilqasim and more modest individuals like Chinano and Mary Fillis remain a significant but neglected aspect of Elizabethan history.

It shows that Muslims have been a part of Britain and its history much longer than many people have ever imagined.

As a conspicuous party of high-profile Muslims (viewed at the time as ‘infidels’), they prompted some suspicion. At the same time, however, they allowed people to see the spectacle of respected noble Moors, who were well-treated by the English when it served their political ends.

Did the Moroccan Ambassador influence Shakespeare’s Othello?

The Africans stayed in England for six months, giving them the opportunity to attend the festivities that marked the anniversary of the Queen’s coronation in November 1600. They were even honoured with a specially-built viewing enclosure.

The group probably remained in England over Christmas, which has led some critics to speculate that they may have witnessed a performance by Shakespeare’s company of players – the Lord Chamberlain’s Men – as part of the season’s celebrations. If so, Shakespeare would have had the chance to see the impressive North African party. The Moroccan Ambassador might have influenced the playwright’s complex portrayal of Othello the noble Moor – who encounters deep prejudice as an outsider in Venice, but is highly valued for his military expertise when it serves Venetian interests.

The Prince of Morocco in The Merchant of Venice

Interestingly, some years before the ambassadorial visit, Shakespeare had already depicted a noble Prince of Morocco as a suitor to Portia in The Merchant of Venice (c. 1596–97). The Prince, described as ‘a tawny [or light-skinned] Moor’, enters with great dignity but fears the prejudice of the Venetians. He asks them not to dislike him ‘for [his] complexion (2.1.1)’. But when he fails the casket test, Portia expresses her relief in terms of his skin colour, ‘Let all of his complexion choose me so’ (2.7.79).

The Moroccan ruler wanted the help of an English fleet to invade Spain. While Elizabeth refused, she welcomed the embassy and accepted the establishment of commercial agreements involving the two countries. [2] [3]  Queen Elizabeth and King Ahmad continued to discuss various plans for combined military operations, with Elizabeth requesting a payment of 100,000 pounds in advance from King Ahmad for the supply of a fleet, with Ahmad asking for an English ship to be sent to get the money. Discussions however remained inconclusive, and both rulers died within two years of the embassy.[8]

Impact on literature

It has been suggested that Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud inspired the character of William Shakespeare‘s Moorish hero Othello, but others have argued that there is no connection. [9][10] In 2016, David Serero played Othello in a Moroccan adaptation inspired by Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud. [11][12]

Shakespeare’s Othello and Desdemona in Venice, by Théodore Chassériau.

These intense relations between England and Morocco are thought to have had a direct impact on the literary productions of the age in England, especially the works of Shakespeare, or The Battle of Alcazar by George Peele.[29]

These contacts possibly influenced the creation of the characters of Shylock, or the Prince of Morocco in The Merchant of Venice.[30] It has even been suggested that the figure of Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud may have inspired the character of Shakespeare‘s Moorish hero Othello.[31]

The painting of Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud is held by the Shakespeare Institute at Stratford-upon-Avon.[2]

Othello : Orson Welles et Mohamed Said Afifi

Dans la culture populaire Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud Le tableau d’Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud est détenu par le Shakespeare Institute à Stratford-upon-Avon.[2] Il a été suggéré qu’Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud a inspiré le personnage de  Héros maure de William Shakespeare Othello , mais d’autres ont soutenu qu’il n’y avait aucun lien.[9][10] En 2016, David Serero  jouait Othello dans une adaptation … Lire la suite

James I of England from the period 1603–1613, standing on an Oriental carpet, by Paul van Somer I (1576–1621) – James I England

James I and Charles I

Morocco had been falling into a state of anarchy following the death of Ahmed al-Mansur in 1603, and local warlords had been on the rise, making the alliance with the Sultanate less and less meaningful.[2]  James I also made peace with Spain upon his accession in 1603, with the Treaty of London.

Relations continued under James I however, who sent his ambassador John Harrisson to Muley Zaydan in 1610 and again in 1613 and 1615 in order to obtain the release of English captives in Morocco.[24] English privateers such as Jack Ward continued to prosper in collaboration with the Barbary states, including Morocco.

Embassies of Mulay Ismail


During the Thirty Years’ War under the rule of Charles I, England sought Moroccan military help against Spain in Tetouan and Salé.[24] England had hoped to obtain Moroccan cooperation after the 1625 English attack on Cadíz, but the campaign proved disastrous and ruined the prestige of England.[2]

Moroccan ambassador Jawdar, 1637

On 10 May 1627, England passed an agreement with one of these local warlords, the Mujahidin leader Sidi Al-Ayyashi to obtain his help in releasing English captives, in exchanges for the supply of provisions and arms.[2][24] England and Al-Ayyashi collaborated for a period of about 10 years, as in the attempted coordinated liberation of Al Ma’mura.[24]

In 1632, the city of Salé, a major harbour to piracy, was jointly taken by an English squadron and Moroccan forces, permitting the pacification of the city and the release of Christian prisoners.[25] [26]

On May 13, 1637, a Convention was signed between Charles I and Sidi Mohammed el-Ayachi, master of Salé, allowing for the supply of military armament to the Sultan.

Mohammed ben Hadou

Mohammed ben Hadou arrived in England on 29 December 1681, and left on 23 July 1682.[4] His six month visit to England was highly commented upon, publicized in the London Gazette [4] and was even the subject of occasional poems. [5]

Mohammed ben Hadou, also Mohammad bin HadouMohammad bin Hadu or Muhammad ben Haddu al’Attar, was a Moroccan ambassador sent to the English court of Charles II by Muley Ismail in 1681-82. [2]  According to the contemporary English commentator John Evelyn, he was the son of an English woman. [3]

CHISWICK HOUSE Detail of “Mohammed Ohadu” by KNELLER Sir Godfrey and Jan Wyck (1640-1700). Credit: The Moroccan Ambassador | Art UK

Mohammed spent six months in England, in a highly commented visit. During his six months embassy (1681-82), to promote peace and an anti-Spanish alliance between Morocco and England, Mohammed bin al Attar was treated with great pomp and pleasantry. Indeed, in January 1682, he presented himself at the Banqueting House to the King and his queen consort. Gifts were exchanged and excited crowds followed him everywhere he went, particularly as he displayed his horse-riding prowess in Hyde Park. The ambassador and his party were invited to banquets and private estates, they toured famous sites in London, including the Royal Society, Westminster Abbey, plus Oxford, Newmarket, Windsor and Cambridge.

Mohammed ben Hadou – This painting is actually located at the Chiswick House

Mohammed bin Hadou, Moroccan ambassador to Great Britain in 1682[1] , riding in Hyde Park, 1682.

He visited Oxford and Cambridge among many other places and became a Fellow of the Royal Society in April. [2] [6]

John Evelyn recorded that he was « the fashion of the season »,[2] and commented on him that he was « a handsome person, well featured and of a wise look, subtile and extremely civile ». [7] At the theater the ambassador behaved « with extreme modesty and gravity ».[7] He struck a magnificent figure riding in Hyde Park.[5]

Mohammed bin Hadou actually at the Chiswick House, London

Mohammed returned to Morocco with a draft Peace and Trade Treaty which was finally not ratified by his king because of outstanding issues regarding the English military presence in Tangiers and English captives in Morocco.[8] The exchanges started 40 years of a shifting Anglo-Moroccan alliance related to European conflicts, trade issues, Barbary Coast pirates and the exchange of captives.[2]

England Socinians wrote letters for Mohammed bin Hadou to remit to Mulay Ismail, in which they praised God for having « preserved your Emperor and his people in the excellent knowledge of that truth touching your belief in a onely sovereign God, who has no distinct […] or plurality of persons », and praising « Mahomet » for being « a scourge on those idolizing Christians ». [9] However, they also complained that the Qur’an contained contradictions that must have been a consequence of its editing after Mohammed’s death. [10]

During his stay Mohammed bin Hadou apparently married an English servant.[11]

Forty years of shifting alliances between Morocco and England would follow Mohammed’s embassy.[2]

The Anglo-Moroccan alliance was decisive in certain periods, ensuring the presence of the British fleet in the defense of the ports of Morocco and also in the resolution of conflicts between the Moorish corsairs themselves.

Abdallah ben Aisha – Ambassador to France and England

Ambassador Admiral Abdallah ben Aisha during his visit to France

Abdallah ben Aisha, also Abdellah bin Aicha, was a Moroccan Admiral and ambassador to France and England in the 17th century. Abdallah departed for France on 11 November 1698 in order to negotiate a treaty.[1]  He spoke Spanish and English fluently, but not French.[1]  His embassy followed the visit of François Pidou de Saint Olon to Morocco in 1689.

Abdallah met with Louis XIV on 16 February 1699.[1] He was welcomed warmly in Paris and visited many landmarks.[1] He also met with the deposed English king James II, exiled in France at that time, whom he had apparently known in his youth when he had been a captive in England. [1] The Ambassador of Morocco Abdallah ben Aisha in Paris in 1699.

One of Abdallah’s main missions had been to obtain an agreement to prevent the capture of Muslims by French ships, and to obtain the return of captured Moroccan pirates employed on French galleys.[1]  Louis XIV however denied a treaty, and on the contrary boasted about his power to the Moroccan king. [1]

After Abdallah’s return to Morocco, numerous letters continued to be exchanged with France, and the Moroccan ruler Mulay Ismail even offered James II military support to reinstal him on the English throne if he wished to convert to Islam, and if not, at least to Protestantism.[1]

One of the high points of these contacts occurred in 1720–21, when English ambassadors John Windus and Commodore Hon. Charles Stewart visited Morocco.

Charles Stewart (Royal Navy officer)

They succeeded in signing a diplomatic treaty with Morocco for the first time, and returned home with 296 released British slaves.[28] Moroccan ambassadors were again sent to England in 1726 (« Mahomet » and « Bo-ally »), and in 1727 a new treaty was signed by John Russel with Mulay Ismail’s successor.[28] A further treaty was signed by John Drummond-Hay in 1865.

Another prominent ambassador was the Moroccan Admiral Abdelkader Perez, who carried out diplomatic duties in London between 1723 and 1737.

Ambassador Admiral Abdelkader Perez

As the name Perez implies, he came from a family of Andalusian origin. Ambassador Admiral Abdelkader Perez, 1723–1737, as it is impossible to speak of the existence of a Moroccan navy, the title of admiral was associated with his origins as a privateer.

Morocco’s ambassador to England and the Netherlands in the 18th century, Abdelkader Perez Ph. Painting

Haj Abdelkader Pérez was a Moroccan Admiral and an ambassador to England in 1723 and again in 1737.[1] On 29 August 1724, he met with King George I and the Prince of Wales[2] These exchanges forty years of shifting alliances between England and Morocco, related to European conflicts, trade issues, Barbary Coast pirates and the exchange of captives.[28]

Moroccan Ambassador Mohamed Abghali to King George August 14, 1725 – February 1727

File:Moroccan Ambassador Abghali 1725.jpg

Mohammed Ben Ali Abgali is Sultan Ismail’s last ambassador to England. In the 1720s, he was appointed by the Alaouite emperor and sent to London to meet King George I. Few sources recall, the mission of the Moroccan diplomat but London still has a significant piece of Abgali’s diplomatic voyage.

Mohamed Ben Othman Al Meknassi

Sent by Alaouite Sultan Mohammed III to the court of King Carlos III of Spain, Mohamed Ben Othman Al Meknassi had to discuss the release of another ambassador who was held hostage in Malta.

In 1779, Alaouite Sultan Moulay Mohammed Ben Abdallah, aka Mohammed III, sent Mohamed Ben Othman Al Meknassi to Spain. The diplomat had to negotiate the release of Muslim captives, held by King Carlos III.

Mohamed Zebdi, Sultan Hassan I’s Ambassador to the European Powers

Sent in 1876 by Sultan Hassan I to Europe, Ambassador Mohamed Zebdi met during his trip the French president, Queen Victoria, and the King of Italy.

According to the «Journal officiel de la République francaise» (June 1876), Haj Mohamed Zebdi arrived in Versailles on June the 10th, 1876. At 4 pm «the president received Sid El Hadj Mohamed el Zebdi, ambassador of His Majesty the emperor of Morocco», recalled the official document.

Hakim Hajoui• Ambassador of His Majesty the King of Morocco to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: 3 – 24 2022

I feel so privileged and proud to represent His Majesty The King Mohammed VI to the court of St James’s.

It was such an honour to meet Her Majesty The Queen Elizabeth II for the presentation of my letters of credence.

The history between our two Kingdoms is a friendship of more than 800 years and today there is a shared desire to deepen further our strong ties 


1Rais Merzouk Ahmed BenkacemAmbassador1588Ahmad al-MansurElizabeth I
2Caid Ahmed ben AdelAmbassador1595Ahmad al-MansurElizabeth I
3Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud AnounAmbassador1600Ahmad al-MansurElizabeth I
4Mohammed Bensaid (known as Lopez de Zapar)Envoy1627Sidi al-AyachiCharles I
5Ahmed NaravaezEnvoy1627Sidi al-AyachiCharles I
6Pasha Ahmed BenabdellahEnvoy1628Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik IICharles I
7Mohammed ClafishouEnvoy1629Sidi al-AyachiCharles I
8General Jawdar ben AbdellahAmbassador1637Mohammed esh-Sheikh es-SeghirCharles I
9Caid Mohamed BenaskarAmbassador1638Mohammed esh-Sheikh es-SeghirCharles I
10Robert BlakeEnvoy1639Mohammed esh-Sheikh es-SeghirCharles I
11Abdelkrim AnnaksisEnvoy1657Mohamed El Haj DilaiCharles II
12Mohammed Ben Haddu AttarAmbassador1681IsmailCharles II
13Abdallah ben AishaAmbassador1685IsmailCharles II
14Haim ToladanoAmbassador1691IsmailWilliam III & Mary II
15Mohamed CardenasEnvoy1700IsmailWilliam III
16Haj Ali SabanEnvoy1700IsmailWilliam III
17Joseph DiazAmbassador1700IsmailAnne
18Ahmed ben Ahmed CardenasAmbassador1706IsmailAnne
19Bentura de ZarlEnvoy1710IsmailAnne
20Abdelkader PerezAmbassador1723IsmailGeorge I
21Mohammed Ben Ali AbgaliAmbassador1725IsmailGeorge I
22Abdelkader PerezAmbassador1737Mohammed II [fr]George I
23Abdekader AdielAmbassador1762Mohammed IIIGeorge III
24Admiral el-Arbi ben Abdellah ben Abu Yahya al-MestiriAmbassador1766Mohammed IIIGeorge III
25Jacob BeniderAmbassador1772Mohammed IIIGeorge III
26Sidi Taher ben Abdelhaq FennishAmbassador1773Mohammed IIIGeorge III
27Mas’ud de la MarEnvoy1781Mohammed IIIGeorge III
28Meir ben MaqninAmbassador1827AbderrahmaneGeorge IV
29al-Amin Said Mohammed ash-ShamiAmbassador1860Mohammed IVVictoria
30Haj Mohammed ZebdiAmbassador1876Hassan IVictoria
31Mohammed Ben Abdellah Ben Abdelkrim as-SaffarAmbassador1880Hassan IVictoria
32Prince Moulay MohammedAmbassador1897AbdelazizVictoria
33al-Mehdi el-MnebhiAmbassador1901AbdelazizEdward VII
34Pasha Abderrahmane Ben Abdessadek ErrifiAmbassador1902AbdelazizEdward VII
35Tahar ben al-AmineAmbassador1909AbdelhafidEdward VII
36Prince Moulay Hassan ben Mehdi AlaouiAmbassador1957Mohammed VElizabeth II
37Princess Lalla AichaAmbassador1965Hassan IIElizabeth II
38Mohammed LaghzaouiAmbassador1969Hassan IIElizabeth II
39Thami OuazzaniAmbassador1971Hassan IIElizabeth II
40Abdallah ChorfiAmbassador1973Hassan IIElizabeth II
41Badreddine SenoussiAmbassador1976Hassan IIElizabeth II
42Abdellatif FilaliAmbassador1980Hassan IIElizabeth II
43Mehdi BenabdeljalilAmbassador1981Hassan IIElizabeth II
44Abdeslam ZeninedAmbassador1987Hassan IIElizabeth II
45Khalid HaddaouiAmbassador1991Hassan IIElizabeth II
46Mohammed BelmahiAmbassador1999Mohammed VIElizabeth II
47Princess Lalla Joumala AlaouiAmbassador2009Mohammed VIElizabeth II
48Abdesselam Aboudrar [de][1]Ambassador2016Mohammed VIElizabeth II
49Hakim HajouiAmbassador2020Mohammed VIElizabeth II

Morocco-UK: Relations Rooted in History, Firmly Focused on Future

07 December 2021 – Last modified : 07 December 2021

London – Morocco and the United Kingdom, two countries with a thousand years of history, have maintained a long-standing friendship for nearly eight centuries, based on mutual respect and esteem.

The celebration this year of the 300th anniversary of the first peace and trade treaty signed between the two kingdoms, testifies to this millennial relationship which is now looking to the future and will be strengthened by the entry into force of their post-Brexit Association Agreement.

In addition, the new foreign policy of the United Kingdom, « Global Britain », has helped to inject a new dynamic to its relations with Morocco, strengthening the strategic dialogue that is taking place since the visit to London in 2018 of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, African Cooperation and Moroccans Abroad, Nasser Bourita.

This has helped identify the strategic issues of Morocco-UK relations, allowing from its first session to establish a strategic security dialogue, while the British Department of Transport had proposed to strengthen technical cooperation in the field of ship and port security.

In addition, Morocco was one of the first countries with which the United Kingdom concluded an Association Agreement, in October 2019, thus anticipating the legal vacuum that would cause the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union.

This partnership restores, in the context of bilateral relations, all the benefits that the two countries granted each other, mutually, under the Association Agreement Morocco-EU, allowing for a continuation of trade between the two countries and offering the necessary guarantees to economic operators on both sides.

Aware of the interest in preserving the continuity of bilateral relations as well as the mutual interests of the two Kingdoms, diplomats from both countries had a dense exchange of visits during the period preceding the entry into force of the Brexit, to ensure that Morocco-UK relations emerge unscathed.

In addition to undoubtedly testifying to the depth of ties between the two countries, the Morocco-UK Association Agreement reflects the relevance and insight of the policy initiated under the leadership of HM King Mohammed VI to diversify the Kingdom’s partnerships and consolidate its position as a hub in Africa.

This is also a boon for the British government which aims to become by 2022, the 1st investor of G7 countries in Africa. In this context, the British Chamber of Commerce in Morocco has stressed the importance of Morocco in this process as a bridge and link with the African continent.

The Kingdom could also become a destination of choice for post-Brexit British investment, especially since several previous agreements are likely to facilitate this process.

One of the most recent being the Memorandum of Understanding concluded in 2020, on the sidelines of the « UK-Africa Investment Summit » in the British capital, aimed at the creation of a joint working group for the promotion of trade and investment opportunities offered by the two kingdoms.

It was also on the sidelines of this summit, which already foreshadowed the contours of the new British foreign policy, that the first session of Morocco-UK Business Dialogue took place, bringing together more than 110 Moroccan companies and 225 British operators with a view to presenting the trade and investment opportunities that the two countries have to offer.

In addition, the two previous editions of the strategic dialogue have helped to revitalize cultural cooperation, with the signing of a memorandum of understanding for the creation of a Joint Cooperation Committee in the field of education and an agreement on the British school system in Morocco.

On the ground, this has resulted in the opening of the first British international school « British Academy School of Marrakech » at the beginning of the academic year 2019-2020, with the aim of continuing this momentum to open other schools across Morocco.

Climate cooperation is not left out since the two kingdoms are positioned as world leaders in ecological action; a fact that is confirmed by the report accompanying the ranking of the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI), in which the New Climate Institute estimated that together with the Scandinavian countries, « the United Kingdom and Morocco, lead the race towards carbon neutrality. »

A convergence of views that was evident at the last World Climate Summit (COP26) held in Glasgow and during which the British presidency has chosen the Kingdom to be among a very short list of 20 countries that took part in the World Summit of Leaders on « accelerating innovation and deployment of clean energy. »

The COP26 Regional Ambassador for the Middle East and Africa, Janet Rogan, took the opportunity to describe Morocco as « a leader in Africa pushing for a breakthrough in new technologies in energy production. »

This set of elements augurs a bright future for relations that began in 1213 and should be further consolidated through the 3rd session of the strategic dialogue and the 1st session of the Association Council scheduled in London.

Portraits of Moroccan Ambassadors in Early Modern England

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There have been a number of works in recent years that have highlighted the close diplomatic relations and cultural exchange between England and Morocco during the early modern period. Although the relationship between the two monarchies varied considerably between 1570 and 1800, including both periods of friendship (as in the time of Queen Elizabeth I and Aḥmad al-Manṣūr) and tensions/hostility, there was nevertheless a maintenance of commercial links and diplomacy throughout the entire period.  As a result of this political context, Islam and Muslims were interwoven into the broader cultural history of early modern England just as European Christians were an integral part of the story of early modern Morocco. Among the treasures that have survived from this period that attest to the evolving mutual perceptions and representation of these societies are portraits of five Moroccan ambassadors who were tasked with securing trade agreements or political-military alliances between the 16th and 18th centuries.  They were:

‘Abd al-Wāḥid ben Mas‘ūd ben Muḥammad al-Nūrī

‘Abd al-Wāḥid ben Mas‘ūd was sent as the ambassador of Aḥmad al-Manṣūr of Morocco (r. 1578–1603) to Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558–1603) in 1600–1601. He was formally tasked with securing a trade agreement, but it appears that he was also involved in negotiating a possible military allegiance between Morocco and England against Catholic Spain. The painting was completed around 1600 by an unknown artist and is preserved in the University of Birmingham.

Al-Annuri – the Moroccan Ambassador

In 1600, there was a significant shift in England’s relationship with the Islamic world. Abd al-Wahid bin Masoud bin Muhammad al-Annuri was forty-two years old when he travelled to England as the ambassador of the Moroccan ruler, Mulay Ahmad al-Mansur. He was met at Dover on 8 August by members of the Barbary Company trading in Morocco, who took him and his retinue into London.

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun, 1600. © University of Birmingham Shakespeare Institute

Al-Annuri’s mission was to establish an Anglo-Moroccan alliance which would unite Moroccan Sunni Muslims and English Protestants against their common enemy: Catholic Spain. Al-Annuri’s proposal to Elizabeth was to invade Spain and reconquer Al Andalus (the mainland of Spain that had been under Muslim rule for centuries) and also launch a joint campaign against Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. Morocco was willing to supply the English fleet with provisions, infantry and money.

After being met at Dover, they travelled to London, arriving at Tower Wharf on 15 August. From there, they went to the household of Anthony Radcliffe, a merchant, on the Strand. Londoners observed, what they perceived to be, the Moroccans’ unusual dress and Islamic customs, including prayer. Then five days later, the Moroccans had their first audience with the Queen at Nonsuch Palace in Surrey. Clearly eager to impress, the palace was prepared with ‘rich hangings and furniture sent from Hampton Court’.

Anthony van den Wyngaerde, Whitehall Stairs, c. 1544. © Wikimedia Commons

The pinnacle of their visit was the celebrations of 17 November at the Whitehall tiltyards, which marked Elizabeth’s accession to the throne. Unlike the French and Russian ambassadors, who sat beside Elizabeth, al-Annuri and his entourage watched the jousting from beneath a specially constructed canopy amongst the Queen’s subjects. It was towards the end of his six-month stay that al-Annuri’s portrait was completed – the first of a Muslim in England.



Jawdar bin ‘Abd Allāh

Jawdar bin ‘Abd Allāh was the ambassador of Muḥammad al-Shaykh al-Saghīr of Morocco (1636–1655) to Charles I of England (1625–1649) in 1637. His arrival was a festive event, recorded in detail and was described as follows: “the reception of the ambassador in London by a crowd of thousands, led by merchants of the Barbary Company and city officials, “all richly appareled . . . with such abundance of Torches and Links, that though it were Night, yet the streets were almost light as Day.”[1] Jawdar bin ‘Abd Allāh was praised in the strongest terms as “a Man of more respect, or higher account and estimation the [Moroccan] Emperour (his Master) could not have sent.” The ambassador was a Portuguese convert to Islam. As J.A.O.C. Brown notes, “it is significant that the whole [English] account [of Jawdar’s diplomatic mission] begins with an exhortation of the benefits of trade between nations, ‘though they are far remote from each other in Religions, Realmes, Regions and Territories; yet they are conjoyned in leagues and friendship together.’ Evidently, the influence of trade and diplomacy made the Moroccans more than simply a putative ‘Other.’”[2] This portrait was engraved by George Glover.

Jawdhar ibn Abdallah


Muḥammad bin Hadou

Muḥammad bin Hadou was the ambassador of Muley Ismā‘īl of Morocco (r. 1672–1727) to Charles II of England (r. 1660–1685) in 1682 (apparently accompanied by an English convert to Islam as interpreter).  He spent Dec. 1681-July 1682 in Britain traveling to various towns. Muḥammad bin Hadou was praised in the London press for his horsemanship in Hyde Park.  On April 26 1682, he was elected to the Royal Society, England’s most prestigious learned society.[3]

BenHaddou Royal Society

The diarist Sir John Evelyn recorded a dinner with Muḥammad bin Hadou and his retinue, who “behaved themselves with extraordinary Moderation & modestie, though placed about a long Table a Lady between each two [Moroccans].” Despite the immodest dress of the women (a mixture of the king’s mistresses and illegitimate daughters), the Moroccans “did not looke about nor stare on the Ladys, or expresse the least surprise; but with a Courtly negligence in pace, Countenance, & whole behaviour, [and] a great deale of Wit and Gallantrie . . . In a word, the Russian Ambassador still at Court behaved himself like a Clowne, compar’d to this Civil Heathen.”

While emphasizing his Islamic faith and foreignness as distinguishing markers of his identity, this account, alongside the portrait of the ambassador, reflects an image of Muḥammad bin Hadou as a well-mannered, cultured and respectable gentleman.[4] The portrait was painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller (1646–1723) and is preserved in Chiswick House in London.



Hājj ‘Abd al-Qādir Pérez

Hājj ‘Abd al-Qādir Pérez was the ambassador of Muley Ismā‘īl of Morocco (r. 1672–1727)to England in 1723. He was an admiral descended from Andalusi Muslim refugees. The portrait was painted in 1724 and is preserved in London.



Muḥammad ben ‘Alī Abgali

Muḥammad ben ‘Alī Abgali was the ambassador of Muley Ismā‘īl of Morocco (r. 1672–1727) to George I (r. 1714–1727) of England between 1725 and 1727. Interested in the arts and sciences, he participated in numerous cultural, intellectual and social events while in London, famously attending a number of plays.[5] In March 1726, he was elected and admitted as a Fellow of the Royal Society.[6] He also corresponded with the renowned English numismatist and mathematician Martin Folkes (d. 1754).[7]

abgali royal society


Source of this article

The Position of the Moroccan Jewish community within the AngloMoroccan Diplomatic Relations from 1480 to 1886

A presentation made by Mohammed Belmahi, KCFO, former Moroccan Ambassador to London (1999-2009), upon the invitation of the Rotary Club of London, on Monday 11th. May 2015, at the Chesterfield hotel, 35 Charles Street, Mayfair.


Date May 5, 2021 By Historic Royal Palaces

Morocco 1912 – 1972 Renaissance Subcapitalist

Ambassadeur M’Nebhi avec la Délégation marocaine embarquant a Casablanca en direction de la Grande Bretagne et pour se rendre a la Conférence de Berlin de 1884-85

The Gradual Expansion of Colonization in Morocco Augustin Bernard, The Renaissance of Morocco; ten years of protectorate: 1912-1922

Said El Mansour Cherkaoui – March 5, 2015 at 12:04 PM The “colonization” of Morocco was slow and gradual: In 1823: signing of a commercial convention with Portugal, followed by comparable agreements with England in 1824, with France and Piedmont in 1825.

To avoid any interference from… Continue reading Morocco 1912 – 1972 Renaissance Subcapitalist 

Maroc 1912 – 1972 Renaissance Subcapitaliste

The Gradual Expansion of Colonization in Morocco –  Said El Mansour Cherkaoui

Augustin Bernard:  The Renaissance of Morocco; ten years of protectorate : 1912-1922
Said El Mansour Cherkaoui – March 5, 2015 at 12:04 PM

The « colonization » of Morocco was slow and gradual:

In 1823: signature of a commercial convention with Portugal, followed by comparable agreements with England in 1824, with France and Piedmont in 1825. To rule out any interference by the Makhzen in Algeria, negotiations will be initiated guaranteeing neutrality Moroccan. This mission, which included the painter Eugène Delacroix, was led in 1832 by Count Charles-Edgar de Mornay.

L’Expansion Graduelle de la Colonisation au Maroc Augustin Bernard, La Renaissance du Maroc; dix ans de protectorat: 1912-1922 Said El Mansour Cherkaoui – March 5, 2015 at 12:04 PM La « colonisation » du Maroc fut lente et graduelle: En 1823 : signature d’une convention commerciale avec le Portugal, suivie d’accords comparables avec l’Angleterre en 1824, avec la France … Lire la suite

Traité pour l’organisation du Protectorat Français dans l’empire Chérifien

by Said El Mansour Cherkaoui October 13, 2022 7 min Maroc Traité pour l’organisation du protectorat français dans l’empire chérifien. (Fès, 30 mars 1912)    Après la conférence d’Algésiras (1906) qui visait à préserver l’intégrité et l’indépendance du Maroc, la tentative de modernisation de l’État marocain pour échapper aux convoitises des Européens, notamment de la France, de l’Espagne et de l’Allemagne, échoue. Le sultan Moulay Abd el-Hafid, assiégé par plusieurs tribus dans sa capitale, Fès, demande l’intervention militaire de la France, ce qui provoque une crise avec l’Allemagne. Un accord de troc colonial est conclu, le 4 novembre 1911 (RGDIP, 1912, documents, p. 7 … Continuer de lire

Fifth Column of the Glaoui and French Protectorat in Morocco

– Said El Mansour Cherkaoui La Cinquième Colonne des Glaoui Version Francaise Episode des Glaoui dans le Sud du Maroc et a Marrakech Une légende sur la montée du Thami El Glaoui selon les dires de mes proches: C’est Madani qui ouvrit les portes de l’Atlas du Sud au Sultan Moulay Hassan Premier qui dans une de ses sorties ‘Harka » se retrouva dans une situation critique vu … Lire la suite Episode of the Glaoui in southern Morocco and Marrakech English Version A legend on the rise of Thami El Glaoui according to the words of my relatives: It was Madani who opened … Continuer de lire – Fifth Column of the Glaoui and French Protectorat in Morocco

Thami El Glaoui Le Puissant Pacha de Marrakech

16 JUIL 2022 – Thami El Glaoui Le Puissant Pacha de Marrakech Les Français et les Britanniques connaissaient Thami El Glaoui comme Seigneur de l’Atlas. De 1912 à 1956, il fut le pacha de Marrakech et l’homme le plus puissant du Maroc. En 1878, Thami El Glaoui est né dans un petit village du sud-est du Maroc. Il était le sixième enfant d’une famille de sept. Ils étaient tous issus d’une même mère, à la peau noire.  Sept ans après sa naissance, son père décède. Son frère aîné l’a soutenu par la suite. Au début de sa jeunesse, il se passionne pour les affaires tribales et commerciales. Lorsqu’il … Continuer de lireThami El Glaoui Le Puissant Pacha de Marrakech

Notions du Protectorat de la France au Maroc

– Said El Mansour Cherkaoui, October 3, 2021 COLONIALISME ET RETOUR DE LA SOUVERAINETÉ AU MAROC SEPTEMBRE 25, 2018 LAISSER UN COMMENTAIRE Maroc Le Temps Colonial et le Souffle d’Indépendance March 5, 2015 at 12:04 PM L’Expansion Graduelle de la Colonisation au Maroc: La « colonisation » du Maroc fut lente et progressive mais surtout sournoise et insidieuse avec des relents farouchement collaboratrices dont les contours de son expansion reflétait l’évolution des relations entre les pays européens. En 1823 … Lire la suite Colonialisme et Retour de la Souveraineté au Maroc → ECRITS RÉCENTS LE JOUG COLONIAL ET LE MAROC JUILLET 22, 2021 LAISSER UN … Continuer de lire : Notions du Protectorat de la France au Maroc

Le Protectorat Français au Maroc

– Said El Mansour Cherkaoui – California Deux analyses sont présentées ici-bas qui malgré le temps et le lieu qui les séparent dans leur écriture comme dans leur contenu, possèdent un dénominateur commun et cela malgré que leurs auteurs Hassan Iqbal et Adam Barbe démontrent que l’hypocrisie présentant le rôle bienfaiteur et modernisateur du Protectorat Français au Maroc ne fut en fait qu’un subterfuge propagandiste derrière lequel le principal but était de consolider la main mise des financiers et des banquiers Français sur l’ensemble de l’économie marocaine et l’exploitation abusive du fruit du labeur et le resultat du travail des marocains. Rôle des … Continuer de lire – Le Protectorat Français au Maroc

NORTH AFRICA (Western Colonialism)

– The modern historiography of North Africa is dominated by controversy over European colonization in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which has colored the view of the past 3,000 years. Beginning with the French capture of Algiers in 1830, this colonization was the second such wave in modern times. The first began with the capture of Ceuta by the Portuguese in 1415; it followed on from the Reconquista, the annexation of Muslim Spain by the Christian kingdoms of Portugal, Castile, and Aragon that was completed in 1492 with the fall of Granada to the newly united kingdom of Spain. By 1492 the … Continuer de lireNORTH AFRICA (Western Colonialism)

Des Américains dans la Guerre du Rif

– INTRODUCTION: UN SEUL MAROC POUR TOUTES LES MAROCAINES ET TOUS LES MAROCAINS REVUE HISTORIQUE DES ARMÉES Des Américains dans la Guerre du Rif William Dean Traduction de Valérie Caniart p. 46-55 Résumé | Index | Plan | Notes de l’auteur | Texte | Bibliographie | Notes | Citation | Auteur Résumés Français English Cet article met en lumière le rôle des Américains dans la guerre du Rif, tant comme observateurs que comme acteurs. Le capitaine Charles Willoughby, officier de renseignement de l’armée américaine, a étudié la rébellion et a tenté, à travers l’analyse réalisée de tirer un certain nombre de leçons de ce conflit. Parallèlement et contrairement aux souhaits du département d’État américain, des aviateurs américains ont servi au Maroc … Continuer de lire Des Américains dans la Guerre du Rif

Ahmed Balafrej: Founder of the 20th Century Moroccan Diplomacy

First Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of independent Morocco

Ahmed Balafrej went to the United States on his own initiative and supported by the Moroccan People for this voyage. Ahmed Balafrej was ahead of his time in all the areas concerning the independence of Morocco and he is the founder of the Movement of independence of Morocco before any one could speak of liberation of Morocco during the time when all the Elites and the Well-off were still speaking with the French authorities about reforms, while Balafrej embraced the independance not reforms under the authority of France, he was the pioneer for the demand of pure and simple independence

The Ambassador of Pakistan knew all this and knew that Ahmed Balafrej came to the United Nations on his own initiative and own financing without any paper from the Moroccan authorities that were still collaborating with the French Colonial Metropole.

Ahmed Balafrej was a break away from such submission to the Fait Accompli. Ahmed Balafrej kept his own believes in sincerity and loyalty to the Sovereignty of Morocco which creates for him problems with the new governments of the Independent Morocco who continued a Neo-colonial relationship with France.

Ahmed Balafrej became the First Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1956 not Prime Minister.

Now independent, Morocco must urgently organize the international representation of its interests. the April 26 1956, Ahmed Balafrej officially becomes the First Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of independent Morocco. He is reappointed to this post in the second government of M’barek Bekkai .

Ahmed Balafrej is the true founder and initiator of Moroccan diplomacy. It was he who opened the first Moroccan embassies abroad, who set up the first consulates and who concretized Morocco’s membership in major international organizations including the UN in July 1956, The League of Arab States and the Organization of African Unity. –1956, first Ministry of Foreign Affairs.  Balafrej and his collaborators 8

Ahmed Balafrej 1956 first Minister of Foreign Affairs. Balafrej and his collaborators

The first mission of Ahmed Balafrej is the signing of the Franco-Moroccan convention of May 20, 1956 consecrating the foundation of a Moroccan diplomacy freed from French tutelage. Then there is the liberation of Tarfaya negotiated with Spain, then a Spanish colony, as well as the return of Tangier under Moroccan authority.

Hachem, God, Allah Bless him in the Beatitude of the Eternal Eden and all our parents together Ameen

Destiny Two Moroccan Militant Meeting in Cairo: Sidi Ahmed Balafrej and Moulay Ahmed Cherkaoui

Sidi Ahmed Balafrej was loyal and good Friend of my Father Moulay Ahmed Cherkaoui from the time before he rose to prominence to the time when he retired from all governmental duties, no change and no volte-face, the same Man and the same Personality, always courteous and hospitable with my Father and during our visits to him.

Ahmed Balafrej : Père fondateur de la diplomatie marocaine

Said El Mansour Cherkaoui On Ahmed Balafrej : Père Fondateur De La Diplomatie Marocaine – 14 décembre 2022  Saïd El Mansour Cherkaoui – Version originelle publiée le 6 novembre 2015 HÉRITAGE PARENTAL DU NATIONALISME MAROCAIN Ahmed Balafrej était un ami proche de mon propre Père, Moulay Ahmed Cherkaoui à l’époque des luttes pour l’indépendance du Maroc. Ma célébration en espagnol de notre récupération de notre Sahara marocain de son occupation par […] Continue Reading

Moulay Ahmed Cherkaoui: Pionnier Moderniste – Militant Nationaliste

Said El Mansour Cherkaoui On Moulay Ahmed Cherkaoui: Pionnier Moderniste – Militant Nationaliste Odyssée de Moulay Ahmed Cherkaoui​ Feuille de Route du Développement de l’Infrastructure de Transports au Maroc Summary in English Language: Our Father, our Friend , our Maalem – Master of Trades, our Mentor and our First Lesson of Thought: Moulay Ahmed Ben Haj Madani Cherkaoui. Our Father Moulay Ahmed Ben Haj Madani Cherkaoui, beside Laghzawi, he was the […] Continue Reading

Sidi Ahmed Belafrej, use to come also to visit my Father as a Man of his word and self-esteem while at my youth I did not even know the extent of his leadership in Morocco.

I always thought that he is another trusted friend of my Father no more no less, a member of our close and familial acquaintances.

The diplomats are the holders of the golden keys of our citizenship in distant cultures, foreign lands, unfamiliar territories and unspoken geo-political environment.

Europe where I lived and living now in the US, our diplomats legitimized us as Citizens of the Kingdom of Morocco. Diplomats are the Peace Knights of reconnaissance and respect that Morocco acquires around the world

In other words, as Citizens we are not diplomats, we are the window through which other cultures and personalities see through, our origins at individual level, family level or at tribal and regional level. We carry the culture and the symbolism as well as the metaphor of the traditions inherent and identified in the Moors, the Moorish and the Moroccan Lands

We are not diplomats as the leaders of diplomacy that open roads in the space and oceans to reach an understanding between state institutions, representative structures and professional communities

Diplomats are the Memory of the existing legitimacy of our Moroccan heritage, legacy and identity at the level of believes and allegiances to our Sovereigns and Dynasties which the Moroccan People have demonstrated and conducted through the existence of Morocco.

Sahara: Inspiration, Réveil, Renouveau Nationalisme Marocain

LE SAHARA: L’INSPIRATION, LE RÉVEIL ET LE RENOUVEAU DU NATIONALISME MAROCAIN SAHARA: INSPIRATION, AWAKENING AND RENEWAL OF MOROCCAN NATIONALISM sáhara, el inspiraton el despertar y la renovación del nacionalismo marroquí SAHARA MARROQUÍ – SAHARA MAROCAIN – MOROCCAN SAHARA – الصحراء المغربية – המרוקאי סהרה MARCHE DE LIBERTÉ – LIBERTY WALK – CAMINO A LA LIBERTAD … Continue reading Sahara: Inspiration, Réveil, Renouveau Nationalisme Marocain

  • 1095-1291 – The Crusades result in crusaders bringing some Middle Eastern customs and Arabic words back to England.
  • 1588 – Christopher Marlowe’s play Tamburlaine the Great contains a scene in which the Koran is burned.
  • 1636 – Oxford University employs a chair of Arabic, who advocates a rational, historical approach to the study of Islam.
  • 1734 – The first full translation of the Koran into English is made.
  • 1869 – Lord Stanley becomes the first Muslim convert in the House of Lords.
  • 1935 – Words from the Koran are broadcast on British radio for the first time, in BBC programme The Sphinx.
  • 1997 – MP Muhammad Sarwar becomes the first person to swear his Oath of Allegiance on the Koran in the House of Commons.

Source: the full timeline on BBC iWonder.

Recognition and Trade:  MOROCCO  USA 

Morocco ★ USA ★ Morocco ★ California ★ Articles on Morocco – USA Relations

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