Moroccan Pioneer Diplomats in Europe

Compilation Said El Mansour CherkaouiOctober 24, 2021 – March 28, 2022

Emissaries of Moroccan Kings to Europe

International Day of Diplomats 24 Octobre

Anglo – Moroccan Alliance1588 – Present

The Anglo-Moroccan alliance [1][2] was established at the end of the 16th century and the early 17th century between the kingdoms of England and Morocco. Commercial agreements had been reached by Queen Elizabeth I of England and the Moroccan Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur on the basis of a common enmity to Philip II of Spain. The arms trade dominated the exchange, and numerous attempts at direct military collaboration were also made.[1]

The alliance was maintained for some time by their successors.


After 1578, Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur developed relations between England and Morocco into a political alliance.

The alliance between the two states developed during the 16th century on the back of regular commercial exchanges, largely thanks to the work of the Amphlett family of merchants.[3]  European trade with Morocco had been at the command of Spain, Portugal and Genoa,[4] but in 1541 the Portuguese suffered the loss of Safi and Agadir, loosening their grip on the area.

Following the sailing of The Lion of Thomas Wyndham in 1551,[5] and the 1585 establishment of the English Barbary Company, trade developed between England and the Barbary states, and especially Morocco.[6] [7]

Sugar and Sweet Diplomacy

Morocco was once a very popular sugar exporter of high quality sugar loaf prized on the European market, rivaling even those from the Caribbean and Brazil.

The Sugar Pins were also used as Exchange Currency for all transactions between European countries and Morocco, including payment for the release by Morocco of prisoners, soldiers and detainees by the pirats, see illustration below.

Sugar Land Saadienne: Histoire Sucrée du Maroc

Industrie Sucrière Industrialisante ou Secteur Pourvoyeur de Pouvoir d’Achat Extérieur et de Renforcement des Assises de l’Etat Saadien? Au XVIe siècle, des moulins à sucre et des plantations se trouvaient aussi dans la province maritime du Haha sur l’Oued Qsob. L’Espagnol Luys del Marmol et Jean-Léon l’Africain citent en outre les plantations de la canne … Lire la suite Sugar Land Saadienne: Histoire Sucrée du Maroc

« Wa Zid Soukar a Caïd Wa Ra Ma Tab Oh Soukar Ma Tssab »

Culture Populaire de l’Histoire du Thé Sucré a Doukkala, Maroc

« Wa Zid Soukar a Caïd Wa Ra Ma Tab Oh Soukar Ma Tssab »

La Traduction Transparente et Modernisée de la Tradition Doukkalienne:Lire la suite « Wa Zid Soukar a Caïd Wa Ra Ma Tab Oh Soukar Ma Tssab »

Sugar, ostrich feathers and saltpeter from Morocco were typically exchanged for English fabrics and firearms, in spite of the protests of Spain and Portugal.[3]

Elizabeth I had numerous exchanges with Sultan Abd al-Malik to facilitate trade and obtain advantages for English traders.[3] The sultan could speak Spanish and Italian as well as Arabic. In 1577 he wrote to the queen in Spanish, signing himself AbdelMeleck in Latin script.[8] That same year, the queen sent Edmund Hogan as ambassador to the Moroccan court.[9]


Elizabeth was initially reluctant to develop an arms trade with Morocco, for fear of criticism by other Christian powers, as was communicated by Hogan to the Sultan in 1577.[9] Contacts however soon developed into a political alliance as a result of further diplomatic exchanges between Elizabeth I and Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, after the defeat of Portugal at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in 1578.[3]

Queen Elizabeth I of England

Anglo–Spanish War

Elizabeth I tried to obtain Sultan al-Mansur’s help in backing Dom António‘s claim to the Portuguese throne against Philip of Spain.

Antonio_of_Portugal Elizabeth I tried to obtain Sultan al-Mansur’s help in backing Dom António’s claim to the Portuguese throne against Philip of Spain

After 1578, Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur developed relations between England and Morocco into a political alliance. Relations intensified with the acclamation of Philip II of Spain as King of Portugal in 1580, and the advent of the Anglo–Spanish War in 1585.[9] In 1581, Elizabeth authorized the exportation of naval-grade timber to Morocco in exchange for saltpeter,[9] a necessary ingredient in gunpowder. The establishment of the Barbary Company in 1585 further gave England a monopoly on Morocco trade for 12 years.[3] In 1585–1588, through the embassy of Henry Roberts, Elizabeth tried to obtain the Sultan’s help in backing Dom António.[9] In 1588, Al-Mansur granted special privileges to English traders.[3]

In her letters to Al-Mansur, Elizabeth, over a period of 25 years, continually described the relationship between the two countries as “La buena amistad y confederación que hay entre nuestras coronas” (“The great friendship and cooperation that exists between our Crowns”), and presented herself as “Vuestra hermana y pariente según ley de corona y ceptro” (“Your sister and relative according to the law of the Crown and the Scepter”).[10]

In January 1589, Al-Mansur through his ambassador to the Queen,[11] Marzuq Rais (Mushac Reyz),[12] requested the supply of oars, carpenters and shipwrights, as well as transportation on English ships, in exchange for his contribution of 150,000 ducats and his military help for an Anglo-Moroccan expedition against Spain in favour of the Portuguese claimant.[9] He also requested English military assistance in case of a conflict with neighboring non-Christian countries. Elizabeth could not meet these demands completely, especially the transportation of Moroccan forces, and negotiation drew on until the death of Dom António in 1595. [9] [13]

The 1589 English expedition to Portugal moved ahead nonetheless, and ended in failure with the English fleet hoping in vain for reinforcements from England or Morocco.[14]  Only the Moroccan ambassador Marzuq Rais was accompanying the expedition, on board the flagship of Dom António, disguised as a Portuguese nobleman, and stayed until summer 1589. [12]

1600 Embassy

Diplomatic relations continued to intensify between Elizabeth and the Barbary states.[15] England entered in a trading relationship with Morocco detrimental to Spain, selling armor, ammunition, timber, metal in exchange for Moroccan sugar, in spite of a Papal ban,[16] prompting the Papal Nuncio in Spain to say of Elizabeth: “there is no evil that is not devised by that woman, who, it is perfectly plain, succoured Mulocco (Abd-el-Malek) with arms, and especially with artillery”.[17]

In 1600, Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, the principal secretary to the Moroccan ruler Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur, visited England as an ambassador to the court of Queen Elizabeth I.[18] [19] 

After 1578, Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur developed relations between England and Morocco into a political alliance
Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun Moorish Ambassador_to_Elizabeth_I

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud spent 6 months at the court of Elizabeth, in order to negotiate an alliance against Spain.[20] [21] The Moroccan ruler wanted the help of an English fleet to invade Spain, Elizabeth refused, but welcomed the embassy as a sign of insurance, and instead accepted to establish commercial agreements.[15] [20] 

Queen Elizabeth and king Ahmad continued to discuss various plans for combined military operations, with Elizabeth requesting a payment of 100,000 pounds in advance to king Ahmad for the supply of a fleet, and Ahmad asking for a tall ship to be sent to get the money. Elizabeth “agreed to sell munitions supplies to Morocco, and she and Mulai Ahmad al-Mansur talked on and off about mounting a joint operation against the Spanish”.[22] Discussions however remained inconclusive, and both rulers died within two years of the embassy. [23]

Moorish Ambassador to Elizabeth I, Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud, born 1558 Known as Morocco ambassador to the Court of Queen Elizabeth I in 1600.

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun (Arabic: عبد الواحد بن مسعود بن محمد عنون‎ “Servant of The One, Son of Messaoud, Son of Mohammed Anoun”) was principal secretary to the Moroccan ruler Mulay Ahmad al-Mansur, and ambassador to the court of Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1600,[1] whose primary task was to promote the establishment of an Anglo-Moroccan alliance.


The visit of Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud followed the sailing of The Lion in 1551, and the 1585 establishment of the English Barbary Company, which had the objective of developing trade between England and Morocco.[2][3] Diplomatic relations and an alliance were established between Elizabeth and the Barbary states.[3]

The last years of the 16th century saw major English successes against Spain, with the English victory against the Spanish Armada in 1588, and the Capture of Cadiz by the Earl of Essex in 1597. As a result, King Ahmad al-Mansur decided to send an embassy to propose a joint invasion of Spain.[3] [4] Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud was accompanied by al Haji Messa and al Haji Bahanet, as well as an interpreter named Abd el-Dodar, an Andalusian by birth, under cover of a trade mission to Aleppo with a stopover in London.[5] Altogether, the embassy numbered 16 (including some prisoners being returned to England), and sailed on board The Eagle under Robert Kitchen.[6] Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud reached Dover on 8 August 1600.[6]

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud spent 6 months at the court of Queen Elizabeth I during 1600 with the aim of negotiating an alliance against Spain. [2] [7]  Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud spoke some Spanish, but he communicated to the Queen through his interpreter who spoke in Italian.[5] They met with the Queen on 19 August[6] and again on 10 September.[6]

The Moroccan ruler wanted the help of an English fleet to invade Spain. While Elizabeth refused, she welcomed the embassy and accepted the establishment of commercial agreements involving the two countries. [2] [3]  Queen Elizabeth and King Ahmad continued to discuss various plans for combined military operations, with Elizabeth requesting a payment of 100,000 pounds in advance from King Ahmad for the supply of a fleet, with Ahmad asking for an English ship to be sent to get the money. Discussions however remained inconclusive, and both rulers died within two years of the embassy.[8]

Impact on literature

It has been suggested that Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud inspired the character of William Shakespeare‘s Moorish hero Othello, but others have argued that there is no connection. [9][10] In 2016, David Serero played Othello in a Moroccan adaptation inspired by Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud. [11][12]

Shakespeare’s Othello and Desdemona in Venice, by Théodore Chassériau.

These intense relations between England and Morocco are thought to have had a direct impact on the literary productions of the age in England, especially the works of Shakespeare, or The Battle of Alcazar by George Peele.[29]

These contacts possibly influenced the creation of the characters of Shylock, or the Prince of Morocco in The Merchant of Venice.[30] It has even been suggested that the figure of Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud may have inspired the character of Shakespeare‘s Moorish hero Othello.[31]

The painting of Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud is held by the Shakespeare Institute at Stratford-upon-Avon.[2]

Othello de Shakespeare et Mohamed Said Afifi a El Jadida – Maroc

Dans la culture populaire Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud Le tableau d’Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud est détenu par le Shakespeare Institute à Stratford-upon-Avon.

Il a été suggéré qu’Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud a inspiré le personnage de  Héros maure de William Shakespeare Othello , mais d’autres ont soutenu qu’il n’y avait aucun lien.

En 2016, David Serero  jouait Othello dans une adaptation … Lire la suite

James I and Charles I

James I of England from the period 1603–1613, standing on an Oriental carpet, by Paul van Somer I (1576–1621) – James I England

Morocco had been falling into a state of anarchy following the death of Ahmed al-Mansur in 1603, and local warlords had been on the rise, making the alliance with the Sultanate less and less meaningful.[2]  James I also made peace with Spain upon his accession in 1603, with the Treaty of London. Relations continued under James I however, who sent his ambassador John Harrisson to Muley Zaydan in 1610 and again in 1613 and 1615 in order to obtain the release of English captives in Morocco.[24] English privateers such as Jack Ward continued to prosper in collaboration with the Barbary states, including Morocco.

Embassies of Mulay Ismail

During the Thirty Years’ War under the rule of Charles I, England sought Moroccan military help against Spain in Tetouan and Salé.[24] England had hoped to obtain Moroccan cooperation after the 1625 English attack on Cadíz, but the campaign proved disastrous and ruined the prestige of England.[2]

Moroccan ambassador Jawdar, 1637

On 10 May 1627, England passed an agreement with one of these local warlords, the Mujahidin leader Sidi Al-Ayyashi to obtain his help in releasing English captives, in exchanges for the supply of provisions and arms.[2][24] England and Al-Ayyashi collaborated for a period of about 10 years, as in the attempted coordinated liberation of Al Ma’mura.[24]

In 1632, the city of Salé, a major harbour to piracy, was jointly taken by an English squadron and Moroccan forces, permitting the pacification of the city and the release of Christian prisoners.[25] [26]

On May 13, 1637, a Convention was signed between Charles I and Sidi Mohammed el-Ayachi, master of Salé, allowing for the supply of military armament to the Sultan.

Mohammed ben Hadou

Mohammed ben Hadou, also Mohammad bin HadouMohammad bin Hadu or Muhammad ben Haddu al’Attar, was a Moroccan ambassador sent to the English court of Charles II by Muley Ismail in 1681-82. [2]  According to the contemporary English commentator John Evelyn, he was the son of an English woman. [3] Mohammed spent six months in England, in a highly commented visit. He visited Oxford, Cambridge and the Royal Society among many other places. [27] [28]


Mohammed ben Hadou arrived in England on 29 December 1681, and left on 23 July 1682.[4] His six month visit to England was highly commented upon, publicized in the London Gazette [4] and was even the subject of occasional poems. [5] 

Mohammed ben Hadou
Mohammed ben Hadou

Mohammed bin Hadou, Moroccan ambassador to Great Britain in 1682.[1] Ambassador Ben Hadou, riding in Hyde Park, 1682.

He visited Oxford and Cambridge among many other places and became a Fellow of the Royal Society in April. [2] [6]

John Evelyn recorded that he was “the fashion of the season”,[2] and commented on him that he was “a handsome person, well featured and of a wise look, subtile and extremely civile”. [7] At the theater the ambassador behaved “with extreme modesty and gravity”.[7] He struck a magnificent figure riding in Hyde Park.[5]

Mohammed returned to Morocco with a draft Peace and Trade Treaty which was finally not ratified by his king because of outstanding issues regarding the English military presence in Tangiers and English captives in Morocco.[8] The exchanges started 40 years of a shifting Anglo-Moroccan alliance related to European conflicts, trade issues, Barbary Coast pirates and the exchange of captives.[2]

England Socinians wrote letters for Mohammed bin Hadou to remit to Mulay Ismail, in which they praised God for having “preserved your Emperor and his people in the excellent knowledge of that truth touching your belief in a onely sovereign God, who has no distinct […] or plurality of persons”, and praising “Mahomet” for being “a scourge on those idolizing Christians”. [9] However, they also complained that the Qur’an contained contradictions that must have been a consequence of its editing after Mohammed’s death. [10]

During his stay Mohammed bin Hadou apparently married an English servant.[11]

Forty years of shifting alliances between Morocco and England would follow Mohammed’s embassy.[2]

The Anglo-Moroccan alliance was decisive in certain periods, ensuring the presence of the British fleet in the defense of the ports of Morocco and also in the resolution of conflicts between the Moorish corsairs themselves.

Abdallah ben Aisha – Ambassador to France and England

Ambassador Admiral Abdallah ben Aisha during his visit to France

Abdallah ben Aisha, also Abdellah bin Aicha, was a Moroccan Admiral and ambassador to France and England in the 17th century. Abdallah departed for France on 11 November 1698 in order to negotiate a treaty.[1]  He spoke Spanish and English fluently, but not French.[1]  His embassy followed the visit of François Pidou de Saint Olon to Morocco in 1689.

Abdallah met with Louis XIV on 16 February 1699.[1] He was welcomed warmly in Paris and visited many landmarks.[1] He also met with the deposed English king James II, exiled in France at that time, whom he had apparently known in his youth when he had been a captive in England. [1] The Ambassador of Morocco Abdallah ben Aisha in Paris in 1699.

One of Abdallah’s main missions had been to obtain an agreement to prevent the capture of Muslims by French ships, and to obtain the return of captured Moroccan pirates employed on French galleys.[1]  Louis XIV however denied a treaty, and on the contrary boasted about his power to the Moroccan king. [1]

After Abdallah’s return to Morocco, numerous letters continued to be exchanged with France, and the Moroccan ruler Mulay Ismail even offered James II military support to reinstal him on the English throne if he wished to convert to Islam, and if not, at least to Protestantism.[1]

One of the high points of these contacts occurred in 1720–21, when English ambassadors John Windus and Commodore Hon. Charles Stewart visited Morocco.

Charles Stewart (Royal Navy officer)

They succeeded in signing a diplomatic treaty with Morocco for the first time, and returned home with 296 released British slaves.[28] Moroccan ambassadors were again sent to England in 1726 (“Mahomet” and “Bo-ally”), and in 1727 a new treaty was signed by John Russel with Mulay Ismail’s successor.[28] A further treaty was signed by John Drummond-Hay in 1865.

Another prominent ambassador was the Moroccan Admiral Abdelkader Perez, who carried out diplomatic duties in London between 1723 and 1737.

Ambassador Admiral Abdelkader Perez

As the name Perez implies, he came from a family of Andalusian origin. Ambassador Admiral Abdelkader Perez, 1723–1737, as it is impossible to speak of the existence of a Moroccan navy, the title of admiral was associated with his origins as a privateer.

Morocco’s ambassador to England and the Netherlands in the 18th century, Abdelkader Perez Ph. Painting

Haj Abdelkader Pérez was a Moroccan Admiral and an ambassador to England in 1723 and again in 1737.[1] On 29 August 1724, he met with King George I and the Prince of Wales. [2] These exchanges forty years of shifting alliances between England and Morocco, related to European conflicts, trade issues, Barbary Coast pirates and the exchange of captives.[28]

Moroccan Ambassador Mohamed Abghali to King George August 14, 1725 – February 1727

File:Moroccan Ambassador Abghali 1725.jpg

Mohammed Ben Ali Abgali is Sultan Ismail’s last ambassador to England. In the 1720s, he was appointed by the Alaouite emperor and sent to London to meet King George I. Few sources recall, the mission of the Moroccan diplomat but London still has a significant piece of Abgali’s diplomatic voyage.

Mohamed Ben Othman Al Meknassi

Sent by Alaouite Sultan Mohammed III to the court of King Carlos III of Spain, Mohamed Ben Othman Al Meknassi had to discuss the release of another ambassador who was held hostage in Malta.

In 1779, Alaouite Sultan Moulay Mohammed Ben Abdallah, aka Mohammed III, sent Mohamed Ben Othman Al Meknassi to Spain. The diplomat had to negotiate the release of Muslim captives, held by King Carlos III.

Mohamed Zebdi, Sultan Hassan I’s Ambassador to the European Powers

Sent in 1876 by Sultan Hassan I to Europe, Ambassador Mohamed Zebdi met during his trip the French president, Queen Victoria, and the King of Italy.

According to the «Journal officiel de la République francaise» (June 1876), Haj Mohamed Zebdi arrived in Versailles on June the 10th, 1876. At 4 pm «the president received Sid El Hadj Mohamed el Zebdi, ambassador of His Majesty the emperor of Morocco», recalled the official document.

Hakim Hajoui• Ambassador of His Majesty the King of Morocco to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: 3 – 24 2022

I feel so privileged and proud to represent His Majesty The King Mohammed VI to the court of St James’s.

It was such an honour to meet Her Majesty The Queen Elizabeth II for the presentation of my letters of credence.

The history between our two Kingdoms is a friendship of more than 800 years and today there is a shared desire to deepen further our strong ties 🇲🇦🇬🇧

#AmbassadorTitleDate of appointmentMoroccan MonarchBritish Monarch
1Rais Merzouk Ahmed BenkacemAmbassador1588Ahmad al-MansurElizabeth I
2Caid Ahmed ben AdelAmbassador1595Ahmad al-MansurElizabeth I
3Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud AnounAmbassador1600Ahmad al-MansurElizabeth I
4Mohammed Bensaid (known as Lopez de Zapar)Envoy1627Sidi al-AyachiCharles I
5Ahmed NaravaezEnvoy1627Sidi al-AyachiCharles I
6Pasha Ahmed BenabdellahEnvoy1628Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik IICharles I
7Mohammed ClafishouEnvoy1629Sidi al-AyachiCharles I
8General Jawdar ben AbdellahAmbassador1637Mohammed esh-Sheikh es-SeghirCharles I
9Caid Mohamed BenaskarAmbassador1638Mohammed esh-Sheikh es-SeghirCharles I
10Robert BlakeEnvoy1639Mohammed esh-Sheikh es-SeghirCharles I
11Abdelkrim AnnaksisEnvoy1657Mohamed El Haj DilaiCharles II
12Mohammed Ben Haddu AttarAmbassador1681IsmailCharles II
13Abdallah ben AishaAmbassador1685IsmailCharles II
14Haim ToladanoAmbassador1691IsmailWilliam III & Mary II
15Mohamed CardenasEnvoy1700IsmailWilliam III
16Haj Ali SabanEnvoy1700IsmailWilliam III
17Joseph DiazAmbassador1700IsmailAnne
18Ahmed ben Ahmed CardenasAmbassador1706IsmailAnne
19Bentura de ZarlEnvoy1710IsmailAnne
20Abdelkader PerezAmbassador1723IsmailGeorge I
21Mohammed Ben Ali AbgaliAmbassador1725IsmailGeorge I
22Abdelkader PerezAmbassador1737Mohammed II [fr]George I
23Abdekader AdielAmbassador1762Mohammed IIIGeorge III
24Admiral el-Arbi ben Abdellah ben Abu Yahya al-MestiriAmbassador1766Mohammed IIIGeorge III
25Jacob BeniderAmbassador1772Mohammed IIIGeorge III
26Sidi Taher ben Abdelhaq FennishAmbassador1773Mohammed IIIGeorge III
27Mas’ud de la MarEnvoy1781Mohammed IIIGeorge III
28Meir ben MaqninAmbassador1827AbderrahmaneGeorge IV
29al-Amin Said Mohammed ash-ShamiAmbassador1860Mohammed IVVictoria
30Haj Mohammed ZebdiAmbassador1876Hassan IVictoria
31Mohammed Ben Abdellah Ben Abdelkrim as-SaffarAmbassador1880Hassan IVictoria
32Prince Moulay MohammedAmbassador1897AbdelazizVictoria
33al-Mehdi el-MnebhiAmbassador1901AbdelazizEdward VII
34Pasha Abderrahmane Ben Abdessadek ErrifiAmbassador1902AbdelazizEdward VII
35Tahar ben al-AmineAmbassador1909AbdelhafidEdward VII
36Prince Moulay Hassan ben Mehdi AlaouiAmbassador1957Mohammed VElizabeth II
37Princess Lalla AichaAmbassador1965Hassan IIElizabeth II
38Mohammed LaghzaouiAmbassador1969Hassan IIElizabeth II
39Thami OuazzaniAmbassador1971Hassan IIElizabeth II
40Abdallah ChorfiAmbassador1973Hassan IIElizabeth II
41Badreddine SenoussiAmbassador1976Hassan IIElizabeth II
42Abdellatif FilaliAmbassador1980Hassan IIElizabeth II
43Mehdi BenabdeljalilAmbassador1981Hassan IIElizabeth II
44Abdeslam ZeninedAmbassador1987Hassan IIElizabeth II
45Khalid HaddaouiAmbassador1991Hassan IIElizabeth II
46Mohammed BelmahiAmbassador1999Mohammed VIElizabeth II
47Princess Lalla Joumala AlaouiAmbassador2009Mohammed VIElizabeth II
48Abdesselam Aboudrar [de][1]Ambassador2016Mohammed VIElizabeth II
49Hakim HajouiAmbassador2020Mohammed VIElizabeth II

🌎 Recongnition and Trade 🌎 MOROCCO 🌐 USA 🌎

Morocco ★ USA ★ Morocco ★ CaliforniaArticles on Morocco – USA Relations by Said El Mansour Cherkaoui

Said El Mansour Cherkaoui
Sciences Po, Grenoble
Université Grenoble Alpes – IREP
Institut des Hautes Etudes de l’Amérique Latine, Paris
Université de la Sorbonne, Paris III

Morocco 1912 – 1972 Renaissance Subcapitalist

Ambassadeur M’Nebhi avec la Délégation marocaine embarquant a Casablanca en direction de la Grande Bretagne et pour se rendre a la Conférence de Berlin de 1884-85

The Gradual Expansion of Colonization in Morocco Augustin Bernard, The Renaissance of Morocco; ten years of protectorate: 1912-1922 Said El Mansour Cherkaoui – March 5, 2015 at 12:04 PM The “colonization” of Morocco was slow and gradual: In 1823: signing of a commercial convention with Portugal, followed by comparable agreements with England in 1824, with France and Piedmont in 1825. To avoid any interference from… Continue reading Morocco 1912 – 1972 Renaissance Subcapitalist

Maroc 1912 – 1972 Renaissance Subcapitaliste

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The Gradual Expansion of Colonization in Morocco

Augustin Bernard,  The Renaissance of Morocco; ten years of protectorate : 1912-1922
Said El Mansour Cherkaoui – March 5, 2015 at 12:04 PM

The “colonization” of Morocco was slow and gradual:

In 1823: signature of a commercial convention with Portugal, followed by comparable agreements with England in 1824, with France and Piedmont in 1825. To rule out any interference by the Makhzen in Algeria, negotiations will be initiated guaranteeing neutrality Moroccan. This mission, which included the painter Eugène Delacroix, was led in 1832 by Count Charles-Edgar de Mornay.

L’Expansion Graduelle de la Colonisation au Maroc Augustin Bernard, La Renaissance du Maroc; dix ans de protectorat: 1912-1922 Said El Mansour Cherkaoui – March 5, 2015 at 12:04 PM La « colonisation » du Maroc fut lente et graduelle: En 1823 : signature d’une convention commerciale avec le Portugal, suivie d’accords comparables avec l’Angleterre en 1824, avec la France … Lire la suite

Ahmed Balafrej: Founder of the 20th Century Moroccan Diplomacy

Now independent, Morocco must urgently organize the international representation of its interests. the April 26 1956, Ahmed Balafrej officially becomes the Prime Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of independent Morocco. He is reappointed to this post in the second government of M’barek Bekkai .

Ahmed Balafrej 1956 first Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Balafrej and his collaborators

He is the true founder and initiator of Moroccan diplomacy. It was he who opened the first Moroccan embassies abroad, who set up the first consulates and who concretized Morocco’s membership in major international organizations including the UN in July 1956, The League of Arab States and the Organization of African Unity. –1956, first Ministry of Foreign Affairs.  Balafrej and his collaborators 8

The first mission of Ahmed Balafrej is the signing of the Franco-Moroccan convention of May 20, 1956 consecrating the foundation of a Moroccan diplomacy freed from French tutelage. Then there is the liberation of Tarfaya negotiated with Spain, then a Spanish colony, as well as the return of Tangier under Moroccan authority.

Hachem, God, Allah Bless him in the Beatitude of the Eternal Eden and all our parents together Ameen

Sidi Ahmed Balafrej was loyal and good Friend of my Father Moulay Ahmed Cherkaoui from the time before he rose to prominence to the time when he retired from all governmental duties, no change and no volte-face, the same Man and the same Personality, always courteous and hospitable with my Father and during our visits to him.

Sidi Ahmed Belafrej, use to come also to visit my Father as a Man of his word and self-esteem while at my youth I did not even know the extent of his leadership in Morocco.

I always thought that he is another trusted friend of my Father no more no less, a member of our close and familial acquaintances.

The diplomats are the holders of the golden keys of our citizenship in distant cultures, foreign lands, unfamiliar territories and unspoken geo-political environment.

Europe where I lived and living now in the US, our diplomats legitimized us as Citizens of the Kingdom of Morocco. Diplomats are the Peace Knights of reconnaissance and respect that Morocco acquires around the world

In other words, as Citizens we are not diplomats, we are the window through which other cultures and personalities see through, our origins at individual level, family level or at tribal and regional level. We carry the culture and the symbolism as well as the metaphor of the traditions inherent and identified in the Moors, the Moorish and the Moroccan Lands

We are not diplomats as the leaders of diplomacy that open roads in the space and oceans to reach an understanding between state institutions, representative structures and professional communities

Diplomats are the Memory of the existing legitimacy of our Moroccan heritage, legacy and identity at the level of believes and allegiances to our Sovereigns and Dynasties which the Moroccan People have demonstrated and conducted through the existence of Morocco

Morocco-UK: Relations Rooted in History, Firmly Focused on Future

07 December 2021Last modified : 07 December 2021

London – Morocco and the United Kingdom, two countries with a thousand years of history, have maintained a long-standing friendship for nearly eight centuries, based on mutual respect and esteem.

The celebration this year of the 300th anniversary of the first peace and trade treaty signed between the two kingdoms, testifies to this millennial relationship which is now looking to the future and will be strengthened by the entry into force of their post-Brexit Association Agreement.

In addition, the new foreign policy of the United Kingdom, “Global Britain”, has helped to inject a new dynamic to its relations with Morocco, strengthening the strategic dialogue that is taking place since the visit to London in 2018 of the Minister of Foreign Affairs, African Cooperation and Moroccans Abroad, Nasser Bourita.

This has helped identify the strategic issues of Morocco-UK relations, allowing from its first session to establish a strategic security dialogue, while the British Department of Transport had proposed to strengthen technical cooperation in the field of ship and port security.

In addition, Morocco was one of the first countries with which the United Kingdom concluded an Association Agreement, in October 2019, thus anticipating the legal vacuum that would cause the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union.

This partnership restores, in the context of bilateral relations, all the benefits that the two countries granted each other, mutually, under the Association Agreement Morocco-EU, allowing for a continuation of trade between the two countries and offering the necessary guarantees to economic operators on both sides.

Aware of the interest in preserving the continuity of bilateral relations as well as the mutual interests of the two Kingdoms, diplomats from both countries had a dense exchange of visits during the period preceding the entry into force of the Brexit, to ensure that Morocco-UK relations emerge unscathed.

In addition to undoubtedly testifying to the depth of ties between the two countries, the Morocco-UK Association Agreement reflects the relevance and insight of the policy initiated under the leadership of HM King Mohammed VI to diversify the Kingdom’s partnerships and consolidate its position as a hub in Africa.

This is also a boon for the British government which aims to become by 2022, the 1st investor of G7 countries in Africa. In this context, the British Chamber of Commerce in Morocco has stressed the importance of Morocco in this process as a bridge and link with the African continent.

The Kingdom could also become a destination of choice for post-Brexit British investment, especially since several previous agreements are likely to facilitate this process.

One of the most recent being the Memorandum of Understanding concluded in 2020, on the sidelines of the “UK-Africa Investment Summit” in the British capital, aimed at the creation of a joint working group for the promotion of trade and investment opportunities offered by the two kingdoms.

It was also on the sidelines of this summit, which already foreshadowed the contours of the new British foreign policy, that the first session of Morocco-UK Business Dialogue took place, bringing together more than 110 Moroccan companies and 225 British operators with a view to presenting the trade and investment opportunities that the two countries have to offer.

In addition, the two previous editions of the strategic dialogue have helped to revitalize cultural cooperation, with the signing of a memorandum of understanding for the creation of a Joint Cooperation Committee in the field of education and an agreement on the British school system in Morocco.

On the ground, this has resulted in the opening of the first British international school “British Academy School of Marrakech” at the beginning of the academic year 2019-2020, with the aim of continuing this momentum to open other schools across Morocco.

Climate cooperation is not left out since the two kingdoms are positioned as world leaders in ecological action; a fact that is confirmed by the report accompanying the ranking of the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI), in which the New Climate Institute estimated that together with the Scandinavian countries, “the United Kingdom and Morocco, lead the race towards carbon neutrality.”

A convergence of views that was evident at the last World Climate Summit (COP26) held in Glasgow and during which the British presidency has chosen the Kingdom to be among a very short list of 20 countries that took part in the World Summit of Leaders on “accelerating innovation and deployment of clean energy.”

The COP26 Regional Ambassador for the Middle East and Africa, Janet Rogan, took the opportunity to describe Morocco as “a leader in Africa pushing for a breakthrough in new technologies in energy production.”

This set of elements augurs a bright future for relations that began in 1213 and should be further consolidated through the 3rd session of the strategic dialogue and the 1st session of the Association Council scheduled in London.

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